WCLF Libertarian Bibliography

This list of suggested readings in libertarian theory and practice was developed in 1992 by Paul Geddes and Steve Vanagas of the Greater Vancouver Libertarian Association (GVLA, now the West Coast Libertarian Foundation) in Vancouver, Canada. I hope you’ll find it useful (and please forgive me all the scannos.) A few of the descriptions may have adapted from printed material of Laissez Faire Books or possibly The Institute for Humane Studies (IHS) at George Mason Univerity: please see these organizations for more information. Send any suggestions or review comments to pged@wclf.org.

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Possible sources for these and other libertarian books include:

In addition, you may want to check out the links at:

(c) Copyright West Coast Libertarian Foundation (formerly GVLA) 1992-1999
Credit to Laissez Faire Books or The Institute for Humane Studies where appropriate.

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Contributions, suggestions, comments, titles, and further reviews welcome at pged@wclf.org

Table of Contents

The Free Market Perspective








Political Science/Sociology

Third World Development


The Family and Education





The Free Market Perspective

We have chosen the following five books as the best introductions to the free market perspective. The books range from economics through philosophy history, law and politics.

Introduction to Libertarianism

Friedman, David. The Machinery of Freedom: A guide to A Radical Capitalism. Rev. ed. La Salle, IL: Open Court Press, 1989. A vigorous, utilitarian defense of private property and capitalism. Friedman doesn’t try to steamroller you into agreement: obvious counterarguments are presented and then he does his best to show you the thinking that lies behind his conclusions.

Friedman, Milton. Capitalism and Freedom. Chicago:University of Chicago Press, 1962. A top economist demonstrates that civil and economic liberties are intertwined and that the preservation of freedom is a powerful reason for limiting and decentralizing government power.

Hayek, Friedrich A. The Constitution of Liberty Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1960. It was the ideal of freedom which inspired modern western civilization and whose partial realization made possible the achievements of that civilization. Hayek shows how to restore that ideal.

Von Mises, Ludwig. Liberalism: A Socio-economic Exposition. Translated by Ralph Raico. Kansas City, MO: Sheed Andrews, 1962; reprint of 1927 original. A strong and clear statement of the meaning of liberalism and its necessary reliance on private property rights, a limited government and a free market.

Rothbard, Murray N. For a New Liberty: The Libertarian Manifesto. Rev. ed. New York: Collier, 1978. An exhilarating, sweeping case for liberty starting with the American origin of this idea and applying It to current social and economic issues.


Popper, Karl R. The Open Society and Its Enemies. 2 vols. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 1971. A critical introduction to the philosophy of politics and history. Plato and Marx are strongly attacked as holding back the attempts of mankind to free themselves and their minds from the tutelage of authority and prejudice. Popper wants to build an open society that preserves the standards of freedom, humaneness and rational criticism.

Hazlitt, Henry. The Foundations of Morality. Los Angeles: Nash Publishing, 1972. A utilitarian defense of morality. Rules of conduct are to be judged by their tendency to lead to desirable social results but in a way that does not conflict with self interest.

Machan, Tibor R. Introduction to Philosophical Inquiries. Lanham, MD: University Press of America, 1985. An introduction to the subject based on the belief that philosophy is a rational, systematic endeavor aiming at understanding. Separate chapters introduce the major controversies in metaphysics, epistemology, logic, ethics and political philosophy and the possibility of philosophical truth and contain valuable bibliographical guides for further reading.

Hospers, John. An Introduction to Philosophical Analysis. 2nd ed. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall, 1967. Comprehensive university text written by an author who values liberty.

Rand, Ayn. Philosophy: Who Needs It?. New York: Bobbs-Merrill, 1982. The Objectivist’s answer is 11everyone11. Her essays touch on a range of philosophical subjects and offers insights to casual readers of philosophy. Especially important for making clear how values affect our everyday lives.

Political Philosophy

Nozick, Robert. Anarchy, State, and Utopia. New York: Basic Books, 1974. Widely acclaimed challenge to notion of the individual’s duty to society. Nozick can only justify a minimal “watchman” state which wouldn’t interfere in capitalist acts between consenting adults.

Axelrod, Robert. The Evolution of Cooperation. New York: Basic Books, 1984. Explores how cooperation can emerge in a world of self-seeking egoists when there is no central authority to police their actions. Cooperation succeeds because those who use it make gains It is a successful evolutionary strategy.

Buchanan, James M. The Limits of Liberty: Between Anarchy and Leviathan. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1975. Nobel prize-winning economist argues that a minimal state would rise out of nature because it is mutually beneficial but constitutional limits should be placed on this state to prevent it from becoming overbearing.

Oppenheimer, Franz. The State. Translated by John Gitterman. New York: Free Life Editions, 1975. A 1914 classic which explores various theories of the origin of the state. Oppenheimer argues that the state is not a result of mutual benefit but the result of conquest and plunder and survives through massive exploitation.

Nock, Albert Jay. Our Enemy, The State. New York: Free Life Editions, 1973. A reprint of Nock’s 1935 classic in which he distinguishes “social power” (the voluntary interactions responsible for western prosperity and civilization) from “state power” (coercion which cripples and confiscates the fruits of social power).

Narveson, Jan. The Libertarian Idea Philadelphia: Temple University Press, 1988. Canadian philosopher argues that the only proper concern of coercive social institutions is individual liberty. Furthermore the basis for this defense is not natural rights but contractual agreement among self-interested individuals.

Clark, Stephen R.L. “Slaves and Citizens,” in Philosophy [633 1985. The argument that a desirable community depends on voluntarism and liberty.

Other works of interest:

· De Jouvenal, Bertrand. The Ethics of Redistribution.

· Fontana, Biancamaria, ed. Benjamin Constant: Political Writings New York: Cambridge University Press, 1988.

· Gauthier, David. Morals by Agreement New York: Oxford University Press, 1986.

· Hoppe, Hans-Hermann. A Theory of Socialism and Capitalism. 1989

· Locke, John. Second Treatise of Civil Government Various editions. First published, 1690.

· Machan, Tibor. Human Rights and Human Liberties 1975.

· Paterson, Isabel. The God of the Machine. Caldwell, Idaho: Caxton, 1968.

· Spencer, Herbert. Social Statics. 1851; New York: Robert Schalkenbach Foundation, 1954.

· Spencer, Herbert. The Man Versus the State. 1884; Indianapolis: Liberty Classics, 1982.

· Sugden, Robert. The Economics of Rights, Co-operation and Welfare. Oxford: Basil Blackwell, 1986.

· Von Humboldt, Wilhelm. The Limits of State Action Cambridge University Press, 1969.

Ayn Rand

Rand, Ayn. The Virtue of Selfishness: A New Concept of Egoism. New York: New American Library, 1965. Essays on “objectivism” and its belief in egoism and individual rights and a condemnation of altruism and self-sacrifice.

Rand, Ayn. Atlas Shrugged. New York: Random House, 1957. Rand expresses her philosophy of ‘1objectivism” in the form of a novel.

Den Uyl, Douglas J. and Rasmussen, Douglas B., eds. The Philosophic Thought of Ayn Rand Urbana, IL: University of Illinois Press, 1984. Collection of academic essays by professional philosophers who favorably but critically examine the ideas of Ayn Rand’s objectivism.

Merrill, Ronald E. The Ideas of Ayn Rand LaSalle, Ill.: Open Court, 1991. A sympathetic account of the Objectivist movement and Rand’s philosophic ideas and novels.

Natural Rights

Lomasky, Loren E. Persons, Rights, and the Moral Community. New York: Oxford University Press, 1987. The strongest defense of libertarian rights theory. Rights are the heavy artillery in a moral arsenal and because they are powerful they must be brandished sparingly and with care.

Machan, Tibor. Individuals and Their Rights. La Salle, IL: Open Court 1989. A bold defense of libertarianism from a premise of the existence of natural rights.

Rollins, L. A. The Myth of Natural Rights. Port Townsend, WA: Loompanics, 1983. A short, vehement attack on the idea of natural rights and the problems of building a libertarianism on its shifting sand.

Wilson, Robert Anton. Natural Law; Or Don’t Put a Rubber on Your Willy. Port Townsend, WA: Loompanics, 1986. Noted science fiction satirist attacks the ideas of natural rights and morality in response to various libertarian defenders of the idea.


Hospers, John. Understanding the Arts Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall, 1982. Introductory university text on the subject from a libertarian philosopher.

Rand, Ayn. The Romantic Manifesto: A Philosophy of Literature. New York: Signet, 1971. Strong argument for Rand’s Objectivist aesthetic which shaped her novels and her view of the role of literature.


Kelley, David. The Evidence of the Senses: A Realist Theory of Perception.

Radnitzky, G. and Bartley, III, W.W., eds. Evolutionary Epistemology, Rationality, and the Sociology of Knowledge. 1987.


Rothbard, Murray N. The Ethics of Liberty

Hazlitt, Henry. The Foundations of Morality. See above.

Engelhardt, Jr., H. Tristam. The Foundations of Bioethics. Oxford University Press, 1986.

Spencer, Herbert. The Principles of Ethics in two volumes; Indianapolis: Liberty Press, 1978. 1879-93; Reprint

Resentment Against Achievement: Understanding the Assault Upon Ability (1988), by Robert Sheaffer

Commerce and Morality (1988), ed. Tibor Machan Essays deal with managerial ethics, ethics of advertising, employment and ethics, corporate social responsibility, morality and markets, and government regulation.

Classical Liberalism

Tannehill, Morris and Tannehill, Linda. The Market for Liberty. New York: Libertarian Review Foundation, 1970.

VIsionary proposals on how a stateless society would work and why a stateless society is desirable.

Barry, Norman. On Classical Liberalism and Libertarianism. New York: St. Martints Press, 1987.

Macedo, Stephen. Liberal Virtues: Citizenship. Virtue, and Community in Liberal Constitutionalism. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1990. The author asks what does it mean to be a classical liberal in today’s society. He outlines values, principles and attitudes that liberalism represents.

Shively, Charles, ed The Collected Works of Lysander Spooner. Weston, Mass.: M & S Press, 1971. Six volumes of essays in the defense of liberty by a radical American pamphleteer of the late 1800s.

Bergland, David. Libertarianism in One Lesson.

Hospers, John. Libertarianism Santa Barbara, CA: Reason Press, 1971.

LeFevre, Robert. The Fundamentals of Liberty.

Other works on classical liberalism as a philosophy:

· New individualist Review. Reprint, Indianapolis: Liberty Press, 1981.


· Bramsted, E.K. and Melhuish, K.J., eds. Western Liberalism: A History in Documents from Locke to Croce. See HISTORY.

Critiques of Marx

Stirner, Max. The Ego and His Own. Translated by Steven Byington. Sun City, CA: Western World Press, 1989 reprint. In this 1845 classic, Stirner, Marx’s prime antagonist repudiates all isms and dogmas and calls for self-liberation.

Conway, David. A Farewell to Marx.

Gordon, David. Resurrecting Marx: The Analytical Marxists on Exploitation, Freedom and Justice


Hazlitt, Henry. Economics in One Lesson. Rev. ed., Norwalk? CN: Arlington House, 1979. Best primer for the basic concepts of economics. Parables and analysis of current policies are combined to communicate the economist’s concern for the full consequences on everybody of different acts.

Friedman, Milton and Friedman, Rose. Free To Choose: A Personal Statement. New York: Harcourt, Brace Jovanovich, 1980. A written extension ~f a popular ten-episode television series. Provides a market analysis of current problems and market alternatives to welfare, government education and consumer regulations.

Lepage, Henri. Tomorrow, Capitalism. Translated by Sheilagh Ogilvie. La Salle, IL: Open Court, 1982. Well-written summary of the work and ideas of modern free market economists such as North, Coase, Buchanan, Becker and Friedman among others.

Bastiat, Frederic. Economic Sophisms. Translated by Arthur Goddard. Irvington-on-Hudson, NY: Foundation for Economic Education, 1964. A series of brilliant, timeless parables and satires that first appeared in the 1840s skewering government interference in the economy, especially trade. Includes the famous “Candlemaker’s Petition”.

Heyne, Paul. The Economic Way of Thinking. 6th ed., New York, Macmillan, 1991. Best introductory text. Author gets readers used to the economist’s approach to various issues by giving countless challenging examples and questions.

Gilder, George. Wealth and Poverty. New York: Basic Books, 1981. The nature of poverty and how wealth creation works to eliminate it. The author addresses American economic problems of the 1970s and the welfare state.

Rockwell Jr., Llewellyn H., ed. The Free Market Reader: essays in the Economics of Liberty Burlingame, CA: Ludwig von Mises Institute, 1988. Essays on economic and public policy issues from the Austrian economic perspective. Good for students already familiar with some concepts of the arguments for the free market.


Friedman, David. Price Theory: An Intermediate Text. 2nd ed., Cincinnati, OH: South-Western, 1990. Rather than memorizing equations and terms, this text tries to teach the economic way of analyzing problems. A constant theme is the purpose of prices to coordinate economic activity.

Hayek, Friedrich A. “Economics and Knowledge”, “The Use of Knowledge in Society” and “The Meaning of Competition” in Individualism and Economic Order. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1948. Reprinted in 1980. Three short essays in which this Nobel laureate economist deals with the fundamentals of economics: What are prices for? What is the purpose of competition and what do we really mean by this term?

Buchanan, James. Cost and Choice: An Inquiry in Economic Theory. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1969. Nobel laureate economist claims that “cost” is not something that can be objectively measured but exists as alternatives in the mind of the person making choices.

Buchanan, James M. and Thirlby, G. F., eds. L.S.E. Essays on Cost. New York: New York University Press, 1981. Classic articles by Hayek, Buchanan, Coase etc., on the meaning of opportunity cost.

Aichian, Armen A. Economic Forces at Work. Indianapolis, IN: Liberty Press, 1977. Collection of articles by UCLA economist Armen Aichian including works on uncertainty, property rights and the meaning of cost.

Rowley, Charles K. and Peacock, Alan T. Welfare Economics: A Liberal Restatement. London: Martin Robertson, 1975. Argues there are coercive implications to the “Paretian” welfare theory that dominates economics. But after dismissing “new left” critiques, the authors outline a ‘small government’ liberal alternative. Good mathematical overview of current microeconomics showing where the holes are.

Harper, F.A. Why Wages Rise. Menlo Park, CA: Institute for Humane Studies, 1957. Reprinted 1978. A brief explanation on the role of labour unions and productivity in setting wage rates.


Hazlitt, Henry. The Failure of the “New Economics11: An Analysis of Keynesian Fallacies Princeton, NJ: D. Van Nostrand, 1959. A line-by-line critical analysis of Keynes’ General Theory. Hazlitt concludes that the General Theory is an odd mixture of old and new. The old is well written but already known; the new is incomprehensible and wrong.

Hutt, W. H. The Keynesian Episode: A Reassessment. Indianapolis, IN: Liberty Press, 1979. Argues that the impact of Keynes’ General Theory has been disastrous: it1s conceptual confusions befuddled not only economists but also lay opinion makers and decision makers. policy implications appeared to have been chosen for their political attractiveness.

Friedman, Milton and Schwartz, Anna J. A Monetary History of the United States, 1867-1960. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 1963. The authors argue that for nearly ninety years of U.S. monetary history, the velocity of money (and therefore the demand for money) was very stable. Thus unhealthy cycles (like the Great Depression) were caused by government failure to maintain a constant supply of money.

Rothbard, Murray. America’s Great Depression. Kansas City, MO: Sheed and Ward, 1975. Claims that the Great Depression was not caused by a government failure to maintain the money supply but by the overcreatlon of money in the previous decade. Then a series of calamitous microeconomic regulations prevented the economy from adjusting to the lower prices.

Smiley, Gene. “Can Keynesianism Explain the 1930s?” in Critical Review, Vol. 5, No. 1 (Winter 1991). Argues that the government prolonged the Great Depression by raising taxes, increasing regulation of private endeavors and wasting scarce resources on economic boondoggles.

Phelan, Christopher. “A Defense of Rational Expectations: General Equilibrium Analysis Against Austrian Objectives” in Critical Review, Vol. 1, No. 4 (Fall 1987). Argues that Austrians misunderstand the rational expectations approach and that monetary stimulation should not cause repeated economic booms.

Monetary Economics

von Mises, Ludwig. The Theory of Money and Credit. Translated by H. E. Batson. Indianapolis, IN: Liberty Classics, 1980. Originally published in 1912, this work integrates microeconomics and monetary theory for the first time, viewing money as only a medium of exchange. Any attempt to artificially stimulate the economy with money will cause a crisis and then depression.

Rothbard, Murray N. What Has The Government Done to Our Money? Los Angeles: Libertarian Publishers, 1964. Short pamphlet argues that government fails in monetary policy for the same reason it fails with other interferences in the economy.

Smith, Vera C. The Rationale of Central Banking and the Free Banking Alternative Westminster, England: P.S. King & Son, 1936; reprinted., Indianapolis, IN: Liberty Press, 1990. Asks what are the relative merits of a centralized monopolistic banking system versus a system of competitive banks.

Hayek, Friedrich A. Denationalization of Money – The Argument Refined: An analysis of The Theory and practice of Concurrent Currencies. London: Institute of Economic Affairs, 1978. The government monopoly of money has caused bouts of inflation and deflation. Competition could cure this.

White, Lawrence H. Free banking in Britain: Theory Experience, and Debate, 1800-1845. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1984. Explores the successful Scottish free banking system and suggests a similar modern system would create greater monetary stability.

White, Lawrence H. Competition and Currency. New York: New York University Press, 1989. Collection of essays on monetary institutions in a free market.

Selgin, George A. The Theory of Free Banking: Money Supply Under Competitive Note Issue. Totowa, NJ: Rowman & Littlefield, 1988. Argues that inflating banks in a free banking system would lose reserves and that paradoxically it is the central banking system which removes discipline. Central banks are prone to make big mistakes instead of just the little ones that entrepreneurs in a free market often do.

Dowd, Kevin. The State and the Monetary System. Oxford: Philip Allan, 1989. A summary of the case for free banking.

Friedman, Milton and Schwartz, Anna. “Has the Government Any Role in Money?” in Journal of Monetary Economics 17 (January 1986) :37-62. Concludes that leaving monetary and banking arrangements to the market would have produced a more satisfactory outcome than was achieved by government involvement. Nevertheless unless there is a crisis, no major change will occur

“Reforming the Monetary Regime” in Cato Journal, Vol. 5, No. 3 (Winter 1986), Special Issue. Articles and responses by Schwartz, Yeager, White, Vaubel, etc., on some of the issues of free banking and currency competition

“Alternative to Government Fiat Money” in Cato Journal, Vol. 9, No. 2 (Fall 1989), Special Issue. Articles and responses by Buchanan, White, Yeager, White, etc., on the proper monetary regime for a free market economy

Friedman, Milton. Money Mischief: Episodes in Monetary History. New York: Harcourt, Brace, 1992. A basic primer and history of money by one of the world’s most outstanding economists writing on one of economics1 most easily misunderstood subject. Case studies of misuse of money are combined with theoretical analysis. We are also given Friedman’s prognosis for the future of money.

Austrian Economics

von Mises, Ludwig. Human Action: A Treatise on Economics. New Haven, CN: Yale University Press, 1949. Commanding single-volume magnum opus by the greatest Austrian economist. Origin of Austrian methodology. Presents a consistent view that prices are the result of differing subjective evaluations of competing alternatives. Hard plugging but highly rewarding.

Rothbard, Murray N. Man, Economy and State: A Treatise on Economic Principles. Los Angeles: Nash, 1962. More than just a simplification of Mises’ Human Action. Adds diagrams and shows where Mises ideas fit with the usual economic approach. Particularly insightful with discussions of monopoly, interest and money.

Kirzner, Israel. Competition and Entrepreneurship. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1973. Kirzner ‘s major work in which he describes the market as a process rather than an equilibrium. Of major importance is the role of the entrepreneur (each of us) continually sniffing out new opportunities.

Dolan, Edwin G., ed. The Foundations of Modern Austrian Economics. Kansas City, MO: Sheed & Ward, 1976. Series of essays presented at a 1974 conference to determine what is distinctive about Austrian contributions to economic theory. Contributors include Rothbard, Kirzner and Lachmann.

Taylor, Thomas C. An Introduction to Austrian Economics Washington, DC: Cato Institute, 1980. Reprinted by Auburn, AL: Ludwig von Mises Institute, 1983. Pamphlet outlining the major ideas of Austrian economics and providing a short bibliography for further research.

O’Driscoll, Jr., Gerald P. Economics as a Coordination Problem: The Contributions of Friedrich A. Hayek. Kansas City, MO: Sheed Andrews and McMeel, 1977 Overview of Hayek’s contributions to economics including reviews of the 1930s’ Hayek-Keynes and Hayek-Knight debates on money and capital.

Rothbard, Murray N. The Essential Ludwig von Mises. Rev. ed., Auburn, AL: Ludwig von Mises Institute, 1983. Short pamphlet outlining Mises’ major contributions and indicating their importance.

Block, Walter and Rockwell, Jr., Llewellyn H. Man, Economy. and Liberty: Essays in Honor of Murray N. Rothbard. Auburn, AL: Ludwig von Mises Institute, 1988. Essays by Armentano, Block, Kirzner, etc., outlining the major contributions of Murray Rothbard. Also contains biographical articles and a complete Rothbard bibliography.

O’Driscoll, Jr., Gerald P. and Rizzo, Mario J. The Economics of Time & Ignorance. New York: Basil Blackwell, 1985. Essays on the modern Austrian challenge to mainstream neo-classical economics. Themes include the importance of uncertainty, subjectivist evaluation and viewing competition as a process

Review of Austrian Economics. Vols. I-IV. Auburn, AL: Ludwig von Mises Institute, 1986-1989. Essays and controversies in the Rothbardian Austrian tradition.

Shand, Alexander H. The Capitalist Alternative: An Introduction to Neo-Austrian Economics. New York: New York University Press, 1984. An introduction to the Austrian school with explanations of the difference between neo-Austrians, neo-classical, Keynesian and Marxist approaches to current economic debate.

Butler, Eamonn. Hayek: His Contribution to the Political and Economic Thought of Our Time. New York: Universe, 1985. An introduction to Hayek’s work especially accessible to the non-economist.


· Rockwell, Jr., Lewellyn H. The Free Market Reader. ECONOMICS, Sec. A, No. 7

· Rothbard, Murray N. Power and Market. ECONOMICS, Sec. I, No. 1.

Trade and Immigration

Bovard, James. The Fair Trade Fraud: How Congress Pillages the Consumer and Decimates American Competitiveness. New York: St. Martin’s Press, 1991. A relentless attack against protectionism masked as “fair ~ An angry polemic at the high cost to consumers of the U.S. government’s protection of domestic industry.

Taylor, Joan Kennedy, ed. Free Trade: The Necessary Foundation for World Peace Irvington-on-Hudson, NY: Foundation for Economic Education, 1986. Collection of classic articles claiming that free trade creates the spirit of peaceful growth while protectionism is the forerunner of military aggrandizement.

Simon, Julian. Population Matters: People, Resources. Environment and Immigration New Brunswick, NJ: Transaction Publishers, 1991. By objective measures, life is improving in North America. One problem is that there aren’t enough people around to enjoy the better life. The solution is to allow more immigration.

Simon, Julian. The Economics of Immigration [The Economic Consequences of Immigration (1989), by Julian Simon why immigration economically benefits the receiving country.

Globerman, Steven, ed. Continental Accord: North American Economic Integration. Vancouver: Fraser Institute, 1991. Essays by economists from Mexico, the U.S. and Canada arguing for dismantling barriers to trade between their countries. Although this will cause dislocations in some sectors, failure to adjust now will only impose greater dislocation costs later.

Waverman, Leonard, ed. Negotiating and Implementing a North American Free Trade Agreement. Vancouver: Fraser Institute, 1992. Six essays surveying the current status of trade liberalization (including some of the disputes) and the obstacles still remaining to freer trade and investment.

Rothbard, Murray N. “Protectionism and the Destruction of Prosperity”, in The Free Market Reader Burlingame, CA: Ludwig von Mises institute, 1988.


Bastiat, Frederic. Economic Sophisms.

Rosenberg, Nathan and Birdzell, L.E. How the West Grew Rich.

The Problem of Monopoly

Armentano, Dominick T. Antitrust and Monopoly: Anatomy of a Policy Failure. 2nd ed., San Francisco: The Independent Institute, 1990. A review of the classic American antitrust cases showing the weakness of their economic logic. Argues that concentrated markets do not perform poorly and need not be tightly regulated. Rather, firms gain and hold market share by being continuously more efficient that their rivals.

Folsom, Jr., Burton W. The Myth of the Robber Barons: A New Look at the Rise of Big Business in America. Reston, VA: Young America’s Foundation, 1987. Reexamines the careers of Vanderbilt, Rockerfeller, etc., Distinguishes between “market entrepreneurs” who produced more and better goods at less cost and the “political entrepreneurs” who used their connections with government to reap rents. Unhappiness with the political entrepreneurs led to regulations which injured society by also preventing market entrepreneurs from pursuing socially beneficial actions.

Armstrong, Donald. Competition Versus Monopoly: Combines Policy in Perspective. Vancouver: Fraser Institute, 1982. Contrasts the structuralist view of industrial organization (competition is measured by the number of firms in an industry) to the behaviorist view (competition is measured by how firms act). One policy conclusion is that real world imperfections are not a sufficient excuse for new law.

Block, Walter, ed. Reaction: The New Combines investigation Act. Vancouver: Fraser Institute, 1986. A series of essays that argues that Canada’s proposed new competition act, while an improvement is still seriously flawed and will cause social harm. The main drawback is that it is predicated on an untenable and outmoded economic theory that business concentration and rivalrous competition are incompatible.

Mathewson, Frank; Trebilcock, Michael; and Walker, Michael, eds. The Law and Economics of Competition Policy. Vancouver: Fraser Institute, 1990. Papers presented by leading academics and practicing lawyers at a symposium jointly sponsored by the Fraser Institute and the University of Toronto Law and Economics Programme. Explores the growing doubt among economists about net benefits from antitrust and the problems that judges and lawyers have in applying these new ideas.

Market Failure (Externalities, Public goods, and Transactions costs)

Stigler, George, ed. Chicago Studies in Political Economy. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1988. Reprints the major articles of the “Chicago school” analysis of regulatory and political processes including Stigler ‘s and Peltzman’s articles on why regulation occurs.

Barzel, Yoram. Economic Analysis of Property Rights Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1989. People form constraining institutions voluntarily so as to achieve the maximum return from interacting. In other words, because we live in a world of intractable transactions costs, property rights change and evolve to maximize net gains.

Posner, Richard A. Economic Analysis of Law. 2nd ed., Boston: Little, Brown, 1977 Argues that law evolves to minimize transactions costs. Current regulations are therefore “optimalt1 or else they would be different.

Block, Walter. “Coase and Demsetz on Private Property Rights” in Journal of Libertarian Studies, Vol 1, No.2 (1977) pp. 111-115. Argues that the Chicago approach to property rights is immoral. Just property rights are determined by examining the history of the situation not by minimizing transactions costs.

Demsetz1 Harold. “Ethics and Efficiency in Property Rights Systems” in Rizzo, Mario ed., Time, Uncertainty and Disequilibrium; Exploration of Austrian Themes. Lexington, MA: DC Heath and Company, 1979 Response to Walter Block. Argues that alternative definitions of the source of private property do not involve disagreement about the value of freedom. Rather, we should promote property rights which promote evolutionary survival.

Schmidtz, David. The Limits of Government: An Essay on the Public Goods Argument. Boulder, CO: Westview Press, 1991. Challenges the accepted idea that there exists a set of “collective” or “public” goods with special characteristics which the private market can’t supply.

Cowen, Tyler, ed. The Theory of Market Failure: A Critical Examination. Fairfax, VA: George Mason University Press, 1988. Collection of classic articles on whether there exist certain goods which the market can’t produce. Responding to Samuelson’s challenge are Coase, Buchanan and Demsetz among others.

Cheung, Steven N. S. The Myth of Social Cost. San Francisco: Cato Institute, 1980. Points out that many of the supposed problems posed by externalities (which require government intervention) are the result of poorly defined or narrowly construed notions of property rights.

Government and government regulation

Rothbard, Murray N. Power and Market: Government and the Economy. 2nd ed. Kansas City, MO: Sheed Andrews and McMeel, 1977 The economic analysis of government intervention. Argues that all taxes and regulation are interference in the voluntary economy – there is no neutral tax and contra the “Chicago school”, government is not simply another instrument of social action.

Buchanan, James M. and Tullock, Gordon. The Calculus of Consent: Logical Foundations of Constitutional Democracy. Ann Arbor, MI: University of Michigan Press, 1962. Collection of articles by founders of the “public choice” school in which government decisions can be understood as maximizing the interest of political decision makers.

Niskanen, William A. Bureaucracy and Representative Government. New York: Aldine-Atherton, 1971. Argues that bureaucracy and regulation grow because of the self interest of the bureaucrats.

Block, Walter, ed. Economic Freedom: Toward a Theory of Measurement: Proceedings of an International Symposium. Vancouver: Fraser Institute, 1991. An attempt to create an international measure of economic freedom in different jurisdictions around the world (Hong Kong came out on top).

Gwartney, James D. and Wagner, Richard E., eds., public Choice and Constitutional Economics. Greenwich, CN: JAI Press, 1988. Series of essays designed to rebuild the case for a constitution that will limit government interference in economic life.

Olson, Mancur. The Rise and Decline of Nations: Economic Growth, Stagflation and Social Rigidities. New Haven, CN: Yale University Press, 1982. Argues that the longer a society enjoys political stability, the more likely it is to develop powerful special-interest lobbies that make It less economically efficient.

Buchanan, James M. Liberty, Market and State: Political Economy in the 1980s. New York: New York University Press, 1985. Collection of essays by a Nobel laureate economist on such diverse topics as order, liberty, justice, efficiency and progress. Includes his comments on Coasian analysis.

Other readings:

· Young, S. David. The Rule of Experts: Occupational licensing in America. Washington, D.C.: Cato Institute, 1987.

· Railroads and Regulation: 1877 – 1916 (1965), by Gabriel Kolko

· Searching for Safety (1988), by Aaron Wildavsky

· Unnatural Monopolies: The Case for Deregulating Public Utilities, ed. Robert W. Poole, Jr.

· “The Perils of Regulation: A Market-Process Approach” by Israel Kirzner, in Discovery and the Capitalist Process Regulation, ed. Jack High

· The Citizen and the State: Essays on Regulation (1975), by George J. Stigler

· Poole, Jr., Robert W. Instead of Regulation: Alternatives to Federal Regulatory Agencies. Lexington, MA: Lexington Books, 1982.


Hanke, Steve H., ed. Privatization and Development. San Francisco: ICS Press, 1987.

When Government Goes Private: Successful Alternatives to Public Services, by Randall Fitzgerald

Prospects for Privatization, ed. Steve Hanke

privatization: Tactics and Techniques (1988), ed. Michael A. Walker Savas, E.S.

Privatizing the Public Sector: How to Shrink Government. Chatham, NJ: Chatham House, 1982.

The Market for Liberty (1970), by Morris and Linda Tannehill Proposals for how a stateless society would work.

Selling the State: Privatization in Britain (1987), by Cento Veljanovski A review of the Thatcher government’s record on privatization. Includes explanations of the objective of privatization, the origins of nationalization, selling assets, regulating private utilities, and the role of the regulatory agency.

Socialist Economics

von Mises, Ludwig. Socialism: An Economic and Sociological Analysis. Indianapolis, IN: Liberty classics, 1981. First published in German, 1922.

von Mises, Ludwig. Economic Calculation in the Socialist Commonwealth.

Hoff, Trygve J.B. Economic Calculation in the Socialist Society. 1938.

Lavoie, Don. Rivalry and Central Planning: The Socialist Calculation Debate Reconsidered. 1985. A review of the debate over socialist calculation between the Austrian economist and socialists.

Lavoie, Don. National Economic Planning: What is Left?.

Rydenfelt, Sven. A Pattern of Failure: Socialist Economies in Crisis. San Diego: Harcourt Brace Jovanovich, 1984. First published in Sweden, 1983. The early 80s economic crises in 15 socialist countries and how they got there. A hint: they systematically crushed entrepreneurs.

de Jasay, Anthony. Market Socialism: A Scrutiny.

Hayek, F.A. The Fatal Conceit: The Errors of Socialism. 1988. The case against socialism and the case for an open society.


Buchanan, James M. What Should Economists Do?. Indianapolis, IN: Liberty Press, 1979. Collection of essays about the method of economics. In a concluding essay, Buchanan explains why despite his many criticisms he is ultimately optimistic about economics.

Stigler, George. The Economist as Preacher, and Other Essays. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1982. Various essay on questions of intellectual influence. What influences economists to study what they do and how do the views of economists influence society?

Friedman, Milton. Friedman on Galbraith and on Curing the British Disease. Vancouver: Fraser Institute, 1977 Two short essays in which Friedman explains the popularity of Galbralth’s ideas and why they are wrong. In the second essay, Friedman gives advice to a pre-Thatcher Britain.

Smith, Adam. The Wealth of Nations. 1776; Indianapolis: Liberty Classics, 1976. The classic work on economics that changed the world. Demonstrated the value of division of labor, market exchange, and the spontaneously ordered “great society”.

Block, Walter B. Defending the Undefendable: The Pimp. Prostitute, Scab, Slumlord, Libeler, Moneylender. and Other Scapegoats in the Rogue’s Gallery of American Society. New York: Fleet Press, 1976. An iconoclastic attack on popular perceptions of the roles of certain groups in society such as pimps, blackmailers, polluters, etc. Very controversial.

Seldon, Arthur. Capitalism. 1990 A defense of free markets.

Rothschild, Michael. Bionomics: The Inevitability of Capitalism. New York: Henry Holt, 1990.

The Logic of Collective Action: Public Goods and the Theory of Groups (1965), by Mancur Olsen

The Economics of Rights, Cooperation and Welfare (Oxford: Basil Blackwell, 1986) by Robert Sugden An introduction to game theory and the spontaneous emergence of cooperation

The Law and Economics of Competition Policy (Vancouver: The Fraser Institute, 1990) Ed. by Frank Mathewson, Michael Trebilcock, and Michael Walker A look at Canadian law which regulates business competition from economic and legal points of view.

Breaking the Shackles: Deregulating Canadian Industry (Vancouver: The Fraser Institute, 1991) Ed. by Walter Block and George Lerm

Public Choice Tyranny of the Status Quo (1984), by Milton and Rose Friedman

The Limits of Liberty: Between Anarchy and Leviathan (1975), by James M. Buchanan

Origins of Prosperity

Rosenberg, Nathan and Bridzell, Jr., L.E. How the West Grew Rich: The Economic Transformation of the Industrial World. New York: Basic Books, 1985. The authors argue that the West’s wealth was created by political pluralism and flexible institutions, rather than corporate organization and mass production technology. Covers the Middle Ages economy, trade, commercial institutions, industrial development, the corporation, stock markets, and the role of science in the creation of wealth.

Hogue, Arthur R. Origins of The Common Law. Bloomington, IN: Indiana University Press, 1966. reprinted by Indianapolis, IN: Liberty Press, 1985. An examination of the evolution of the common law in England between 1150 and 1300 when the early rules of common law took form. Shows the relation between early rules and the social order during this period of rapid change and treats law not as something timeless but a social institution.

Lopez, Robert S. The Commercial Revolution of the Middle Ages. 950-1350. Cambridge University Press, 1976.

Foreman-Peck, James. A History of the World Economy: International Economic Relations Since 1850. Totowa, NJ: Barnes and Noble, 1983.

Davis, Joseph S. The World Between the Wars, 1919-39: An Economists’ View. Baltimore: The Johns Hopkins University Press, 1975.

History of the Idea of Liberty

Chamberlain, John. The Roots of Capitalism. New York: Van Nostrand, 1957 reprinted by Indianapolis, IN: Liberty Press, 1976. Discusses the ideas responsible for the economic institutions of capitalism and the originators of those ideas.

Von Mises, Ludwig. Theory and History: An Interpretation of Social and Economic Evolution New Haven, CN: Yale University Press, 1957. Reprinted by Auburn, AL: Ludwig von Mises Institute, 1985. An Austrian economist argues that historical events can’t be completely or precisely determined by any theory since freedom of mind and of choice is at the irreducible heart of the human condition.

Acton, Lord. Essays in the Study and Writing of History. Liberty Fund, 1986. I

Rustow, Alexander. Freedom and Domination: A Historical Critique of Civilization. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 1980. First published in German, 1950. Human history is the history of a continuing struggle between the forces of freedom and the forces of domination.

Hayek, Friedrich A. The Road to Serfdom. University of Chicago Press, 1944. A warning that socialism IS Incompatible with democracy and that government social planning may eventually destroy individual political and economic freedom In the West.

Bramsted, E.K. and Melhuish, K.J., eds. Western Liberalism: A History in Documents from Locke to Croce. London: Longman, 1978. Excellent compilation of classical liberal essays from 18th and 19th-century Europe together with an outline of the progress of liberalism as a political doctrine during this period. Excerpts from Locke, Turgot, Adam Smith, Cobden, John Bright, Say, Bastiat, von Humboldt, de Tracy, Constant, de Stael, Lord Acton, Spencer, and Hayek. The editors also include writings of those who are less clearly “classical” liberals.

The Industrial Revolution

Hayek, Friedrich A., ed. Capitalism and the Historians. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1954. Essays by different economic historians countering the view that the Industrial Revolution was a period of economic immiseration. Rather living standards improved and population grew in response to economic development.

Ashton, T.S. The industrial Revolution 1760-1830. New York: Oxford University Press, 1948. A short, high quality summary of an amazing period. In the span of one lifetime, Britain underwent a series of changes that radically altered society. During those seventy years, a permissive government permitted the transformation of a nation of settled cultivators into a mobile industrial society. Not only does Ashton present the generalizations, he also places it in its proper perspective so we can admire this great achievement.

Hartwell, Ronald Max. The Causes of the Industrial Revolution in England. London: Methuen, 1967.

McKendrick, Neil; Brewer, John; Plumb, J.H. The Birth of a Consumer Society: The Commercialization of Eighteenth-Century England. London: Europa Publications, 1982. Interesting studies of how self-interested consumerism—the pursuit of creature comforts and luxuries—changed the economy of England for the benefit of all.

Other works of interest on the Industrial Revolution:

· Nardinelli, Clark. Child Labor and the Industrial Revolution.

· Turner, E.S. Roads to Ruin: The Shocking History of Social Reform. London: Michael Joseph, 1950 reprinted by Hardmondsworth, England: Penguin Books, 1966. This leftist historian is outraged at the slowness of British parliament to pass reforming social legislation (to counter children in the mines, overloaded ships etc.,). Many laws were passed only after they no longer had much effect. In other words, something else was at work… could It be the rising prosperity brought by relative laissez-faire? Strange that with so much evidence laid out, the author’s blinkered view doesn1t let him see this.

The Great Depression

Rothbard, Murray. America’s Great Depression. Kansas City, MO: Sheed and Ward, 1975. Claims that the Great Depression was not caused by a government failure to maintain the money supply but by the overcreation of money in the previous decade. Then a series of calamitous microeconomic regulations prevented the economy from adjusting to the lower prices.

Flynn, John T. As We Go Marching. 1944; New York: Free Life Editions, 1973. A 1940s warning that the United States under the Roosevelt government was moving toward fascism with central planning of the economy, a corporate state, and the institution of militarism In public works projects.

Beito, David T. Taxpayers in Revolt: Tax Resistance During the Great Depression, 1930-1935.

Radosh, Ronald and Rothbard, Murray N., eds. A New History of Leviathan: Essays on the Rise of the American Corporate State. New York: E. P. Dutton, 1972. See especially the Rothbard essay, “Herbert Hoover and the Myth of Laissez-Faire”.

Canadian History

Brimelow, Peter. The Patriot Game: Canada and the Canadian Question Revisited. Toronto: Key Porter Books, 1986. An analysis of Canadian political culture, Canada’s continuing constitutional crisis and the threat of Quebec separatism.

Jacobs, Jane. The question of Separatism: Quebec and the Struggle over Sovereignty. New York, Random House, 1980. The author argues that the separation of Quebec from Canada could benefit both.

Bliss, Michael. Northern enterprise: Five Centuries of Canadian Business. Toronto: McClelland and Stewart, 1987. The history of business in Canada from the European fishermen of the 1480s to free trade in the 1980s. A scholarly, comprehensive history from the perspective that business is heroic, honorable and produces great social benefit.

Somerville, David. Trudeau Revealed. Richmond Hill, Ont. BMG Publishing, 1978. A revealing biography of Prime Minister Trudeau and his socialist tendencies.

U.S. History

Rothbard, Murray N. Conceived in Liberty With the assistance of Leonard P. Liggio. 4 vols. New Rochelle, N.Y.: Arlington House, 1975 and 1976. Vol. I: A New Land, a New People: The American Colonies in the Seventeenth Century. Vol. II: “Salutary Neglect”: The American Colonies in the First Half of the 18th Century. Vol. III: Advance to Revolution, 1760-1775. Massive and detailed account of the events and causes leading up to the American Revolution.

Bailyn, Bernard. The Ideological Origins of the American Revolution. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1967. The sources of American Revolutionary thought are traced to the philosophies of classical liberalism.

Nock, Albert Jay. Mr. Jefferson. 1926.

Appleby, Joyce. Capitalism and a New Social Order: The Republican Vision of the 1790s. New York: New York University Press, 1984. A study of the liberal, anti-statist program of the Jeffersonian Republicans who were, contrary to some interpretations, supporters of economic development and capitalism.

Nelson, Jr., John R. Liberty and Property: Political Economy and Policymaking in the New Nation, 1789-1812.

Arieli, Yehoshua. Individualism and nationalism in American Ideology. Baltimore: Penguin, 1966. The growth of Lockean liberalism in the new American republic and the later conflict between statist nationalism and liberalism.

Martin, James J. Men Against the State: The Expositors of Individualist Anarchism in America, 1827- 1908. First published, 1953; New York: Libertarian Book Club, 1957. Biographies of radical American individualists.

Saul, S. B. The Myth of the Great Depression, 1873-1896. New York: Macmillan, 1972.

Kolko, Gabriel. Railroads and Regulation. 1877 1916 Princeton University Press, 1965.

Kolko, Gabriel. The Triumph of Conservatism: A Reinterpretation of American History, 1900-1916. Chicago: Quadrangle Books, 1963. Leftist revisionist historian reinterprets the American “Progressive Era” to be one in which political insiders from established companies used government regulations to protect their businesses from competition.

Radosh, Ronald. Prophets on the Right: Profiles of Conservative Critics of American Globalism. New York: Simon and Schuster, 1975. Profiles of five men who opposed foreign intervention in the 1930s through to the 1950s: Senator Robert A. Taft, John T. Flynn, Oswald Garrison Villard, Lawrence Dennis, and Charles A. Beard.

Eklrch, Jr., Arthur A. The Decline of American Liberalism. New York: Atheneum, 1976.

Hughes, Jonathan R. T. The Governmental Habit: Economic Controls from Colonial Times to the Present New York: Basic Books, 1977. A history of government regulation in America.

Higgs, Robert. Crisis and Leviathan: Critical Episodes in the Growth of American Government. New York: Oxford University Press, 1987. The causes of the great growth in American government with examinations of at the Old Regime, the Progressive Era, World War One, the Great Depression, World War Two and the mixed economy era. Excellent bibliography on American history.

Murray, Charles. Losing Ground: American Social Policy, 1950 -1980. New York: Basic Books, 1984.

Kwitny, Jonathan. Endless Enemies: The Making of an Unfriendly World. New York: St. Martin’s Press, 1984. How American foreign policy undermines the values of free enterprise and liberty.

Nisbet, Robert. The Present Age: Progress and Anarchy in Modern America. 1988. Twentieth century America observed from the perspective of the Founding Fathers.

Anderson, Martin. Revolution. San Diego: Harcourt Brace Jovanovich, 1988. The achievements of the Reagan government from the perspective of a top policy adviser.

Boaz, David, ed. Assessing the Reagan Years. 1988. Essays evaluating the Reagan administration’s policies from a critical, but free market, perspective.

South American History

De Soto, Hernando. The Other Path: The Invisible Revolution in the Third World. New York: Perennial Library, 1989. First published in Peru, 1986. A look at how the black market operates in Peru and, through this, how a market economy spontaneously develops without government.

Andreski, Stanislav. Parasitism and Subversion: The Case of Latin America. New York: Schocken Books, 1969.

European History

Jones, E.L. The European Economic Miracle: Environments, Economies. and Geopolitics in the History of Europe and Asia. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1981. Second edition, 1987. The origins of economic growth in Europe are traced to economic individualism, limits to political arbitrariness, and the competition for merchants among principalities. Good bibliography on the economic history of Europe and Asia.

Thierry, Augustin. History of the Conquest of England by the Normans. 1825; New York: E. P. Dutton, 1927, in 2 volumes. The medieval roots of state power are traced to war and conquest.

Macfarlane, Alan. The Origins of English Individualism. Oxford: Basil Blackweil, 1978. A controversial work claiming that there was no sudden transition of English society from feudalism to capitalism, but rather a gradual evolution.

Simon, W.M., ed. French Liberalism: 1789 – 1848. New York: John Wiley & Sons, 1972. A selection of writings by French liberals including Condorcet, de Tracy, Jean-Baptiste Say, and Constant.

Jacobson, David L. The English Libertarian Heritage. New York: Bobbs-Merrill, 1965.

Aylmer, G. E., ed. The Levellers in the English Revolution. Ithaca, N.Y.: Cornell University Press, 1975. Greenleaf,

W.H. The British Political Tradition. Three volumes. New York: Methuen, 1983, 1987, 1992. The development of British political thought. The volumes are “The Rise of Collectivism”, “The Ideological Heritage”, and “A Much Governed Nation Davis,

Lance E. and Huttenback, Robert A. Mammon and the Pursuit of Empire: The Political Economy of British Imperialism. 1860 -1912. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1987. An examination of the claim that imperialism was profitable for the English people; implicitly refutes Marxian claims that “capitalism” leads to imperialism and proves the truth of the arguments of classical liberals like Richard Cobden and John Bright that imperialism was against the interests of the taxpaying and productive sectors of British society.

Holmes, Stephen. Benjamin Constant and the Making of Modern Liberalism. New Haven: Yale University Press, 1984.

Conquest, Robert. The Harvest of Sorrow: Soviet Collectivization and the Terror-Famine. New York: Oxford University Press, 1986. History of the dekulakization, collectivization, and imposition of the “terror-famine” on the Russian peasantry by the Soviet Communist government between 1929 and 1933.

Heller, Mikhail and Nekrich, Aleksandr M. Utopia in Power: The History of the Soviet Union from 1917 to the Present. Translated by Phyllis B. Carlos. English edition, New York: Summit, 1986.

Asian History

Mosher, Steven W. Broken Earth: The Rural Chinese. New York: Free Press, 1983. Hong Kong

African History

Gann, L.H. and Duignan, Peter. Burden of Empire: An Appraisal of Western Colonialism in Africa South of the Sahara. New York: Praeger, 1967

Williams, Walter E. South Africa’s War Against Capitalism. New York: Praeger, 1989. Apartheid was anti-capitalist in its origins and is anti- capitalist in practice.

Kendall, Frances and Louw, Leon. After Apartheid: The Solution for South Africa. San Francisco: ICS Press, 1987. A proposal for a South African political system based on the Swiss system on government.

Hutt, W.H. The Economics of the Colour Bar. 1964. An analysis of South African apartheid from a classical liberal perspective.

Urban History

Jacobs, Jane. The Death and Life of Great American Cities New York: Random House, 1961. A landmark book on urban issues. An attack on urban planning, arguing that planning has destroyed the city as a vital link of a community and has turned them into slums.

Jacobs, Jane. The Economy of Cities. New York: Random House, 1969. How the spontaneous development and growth of cities fit patterns different from those imposed by “urban Planners” and statist technocrats.

Pirenne, Henri. Medieval Cities: Their Origins and the Revival of Trade. 1925; Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1974. Medieval cities and revolutionary communes were created on the basis on trade and production and formed the roots of Western liberty.

Beito, David and Smith, Bruce. “The Formation of Urban infrastructure Through Non-Government Planning: The Private Place of St. Louis, 1869-1920,” in Journal of Urban History L16] May 1990.

Siegan, Bernard H. Land Use Without Zoning. 1972. Davies, Stephen. “The Suppression of Private Provision” in Economic Affairs [7] August/September 1987. Argues that the private provision of urban services such as water supplies and sanitation was successful.

Weiss, Marc A. The Rise of the Community Builders: The American Real Estate Industry and Urban Land planning 1987. Argues that planning features ranging from lot size and shape, to rolling topography, to park designations and underground utilities, which are now standard on developments were only adopted by government planners after private developers had initiated them.


Johnson, Paul. Modern Times: The World from the Twenties to the Eighties New York: Harper & Row, 1983. A narrative history covering the events, personalities and ideas of sixty years in the 20th century together with an analysis of the modern age and where it is heading.

Johnson, Paul. The Birth of the Modern: World Society 1815-1830.

History of Christianity, by Paul Johnson

History of the Jews, by Paul Johnson


Rand, Ayn. Atlas Shrugged. New York: Random House, 1957. The philosophical bible of Rand’s Objectivist movement. The story has individualistic entrepreneurs and businessmen go on strike to protest government intervention.

Rand, Ayn. The Fountainhead. New York: Bobbs-Merrill, 1943. The struggles of a pioneering architect to maintain his integrity against the pressures of conformity. This was Rand’s first presentation of her philosophy in the form of a novel.

Heinlein, Robert A. The Moon is a Harsh Mistress. New York:

G. P. Putnam, 1966. Moon colonists revolt against the oppression of the Earth. Professor Bernardo de la Paz supplies the “rational anarchist” ideas. Origin of the acronym TANSTAAFL.

Levin, Ira. This Perfect Day. New York: Random House, 1970. A future In which the populace is chemically tranquilized and the environment computer-controlled until a few individuals lose their dependence and learn what it means to make choices.

Wilson, F. Paul. An Enemy of the State. New York: Doubleday, 1980. Emperor Metep VII has got to go but most revolutions replace bad governments with worse ones. How might the ultimate goal of less government be achieved? Contra Ayn Rand, the Robin Hood myth is rescued from the statists. Most satisfying (and inspiring) of the libertarian sci-fi literature. Tops Heinlein’s TANSTAAFL with KYFHO.

Schulman, J. Neil. Alongside Night New York: Crown, 1979. What can you say about a novel in which the hero is the seventeen-year-old son of a world-famous libertarian economist one who the author says is a “combination of Murray Rothbard, Milton Friedman, Wilhelm Roepke, F.A. Hayek and a few others.” favorite scene is a street demonstration in which the crowd chants “Laissez-faire” and carries signs such as “Mises over Marx”!

Heinlein, Robert A. Time Enough for Love. New York: G. P. Putnam, 1973. The immortal Lazarus Long looks back on his 2,500-year life and the evolution of society. Of interest to lovers of liberty for Heinlein’s evaluations of and predictions about government.

VInge, Verner. “The Ungoverned”, in True Names – and Other Dangers. New York: Baen Books, 1987. How might anarcho-capitalism work in a world of nuclear weapons? In an afterword, the author claims that this is the endpoint of many trends of the last five hundred years and strongly recommends David Friedman’s The Machinery of Freedom.

Orwell, George. Nineteen Eighty-Four. Various editions. First published, 1949. A nightmarish view of government as Big Brother and controller of every human action and emotion.

Other works of interest:

· Rand, Ayn. Anthem. Los Angeles: Pamphleteers, 1946.

· Rand, Ayn. We the living.

· Heinlein, Robert A. Stranger in a Strange Land 1961.

· Zamyatin, Yevgeny. We. First published 1952. English translation 1983.

· Niven, Larry and Pournelle, Jerry. Oath of Fealty Pocket Books, 1981.

· Anderson, Poul. ” No Truce with Kings” in Time and Stars. Garden City, NY: Doubleday, 1964.

· Kornbluth, C.M. The Syndic. Garden City, NY: Doubleday, 1955.

· Schulman, J. Neil. The Rainbow Cadenza. New York: Simon and Schuster, 1983.

Literary Criticism

Cox, Stephen. “Literary Theory: Liberal and Otherwise” in Humane Studies Review Vol. 5, No. 1, Fall 1987. A bibliographic essay that includes critiques of literary deconstructionism and discussion of a classical liberal theory of literary criticism.

Booth, Wayne C. The Company We Keep: An Ethics of Fiction. University of California Press, This University of Chicago professor of English rejects the arguments of those who say ethics have no place in literature or literary criticism. He argues that a work of literature may be judged by its effect on individual writers and readers.

Eckerle, George. “The Fictions of Jorge Luis Borges” in Humane Studies Review

Dunn, J. R. “Goodbye, Galactic Empire1’ in Liberty, Vol. 3, No. 2, November 1989. Critical review of libertarian science fiction literature.


Lichter, S. Robert, Linda Lichter & Stanley Rothman. Watching America: What Television Tells Us About Our Lives New York: Prentice Hall Press, 1991. An intense study of American television programs through content analysis shows how television reflects and shapes the myths of U.S. culture and ways of life and how it has evolved from reinforcing traditional values to political advocacy. 3

Government Culture

“Freedom From Culture,” by John Metcalf in Fraser Forum, January 1988

Harazti, Mikios. The Velvet Prison: Artists Under State Socialism. The consequences to art and artists when the state controls the culture of a society.


Vatz, Richard and Weinberg, Lee, eds., Thomas Szasz: Primary Values and Major Contentions. Buffalo, NY: Prometheus Books, 1983. An introduction to the controversial ideas of a psychiatrist who consistently argues that people make choices in life and that we should tolerate the choices that other people make. Iconoclastically, Szasz is skeptical of the concept of mental illness, Is opposed to the insanity defense in criminal trials and will tolerate no social control of drugs. Also included in this anthology are some of the major critiques of Szasz ‘5 views along with his defenders’ answers.

Brandon, Nathaniel. The Psychology of Self-Esteem. New York: Bantam, 1969. An attempt to construct a rational psychology based on the notion that people are volitionally conscious. Self-esteem is our personal judgement about achieving self-chosen goals.

Breggin, Peter R. The Psychology of Freedom. Buffalo, NY: Prometheus Books, 1980. Builds from the idea that our emotions and feelings are the results of our choices in life. Argues that a happier life starts from acknowledging the principles of liberty, self-ownership and love for self and others. This is a ‘1free person’s psychology”

Peele, Stanton. Diseasing of America: Addiction Treatment out of Control. Lexington, MA: Lexington Books, 1990. Polemical attack on the bizarre ideology that defines human problems and excesses as addictive diseases. Sees much danger to our liberties when society blames chemicals and biology for the choices that people make in life.

Other works of interest:

· Trust: Making and Breaking Cooperative Relations (1988), ed. Diego Gambetta

· Gustave Le Bon: The Man and His Works (1979), ed. Alice Widener

· Law, Liberty, and Psychiatry, by Thomas Szasz

· The Myth of Mental Illness, by Thomas Szasz

· Engelhardt, Jr., H. Tristram. The Foundations of Bioethics. New York: Oxford University Press, 1986.


Friedenberg, Edgard. Deference to Authority: The Case of Canada. White Plains, NY: M.E. Sharpe, 1980. Argues that Canadians are politically and socially different from Americans mostly because of our greater willingness to submit to authority.

Amiel, Barbara. Confessions. Macmillan, 1980. A Canadian journalist tracks her own journey from the left to what she calls “neo-conservatism” (this was the ideological fashion of the early 1980s). Interesting for its look at Canadian intellectual fashions and hypocrisy.

Baldwin, John R. Regulatory Failure and Renewal: The Evolution of the Natural Monopoly Contract Ottawa: Economic Council of Canada, 1989. Argues that lack of political agreement in Canada about the sanctity of property rights made it risky to invest is social infrastructure (transportation, utilities, etc.,) without political lobbying and payoffs. These political ties were then used to prevent competition.

Gairdner, William. The Trouble with Canada Toronto: Stoddart, 1990. Attempt to popularize the ideas of less government in Canada by mixing conservative and libertarian notions. There are some distinctly non-libertarian ideas proposed here, especially those dealing with immigration.

Trench, William. Only You Can Save Canada.

The Economy and Public Policy

Bliss, Michael. Northern Enterprise: Five Centuries of Canadian Business. Toronto: McClelland and Stewart, 1987. A scholarly, comprehensive history of business in Canada from the perspective that business is heroic, honourable, and produces great social benefit.

Horry, Isabella; Filip Palda, and Michael Walker. Tax Facts Eight. Vancouver: Fraser Institute, 1992. The latest in a series measuring the total tax burden on the average Canadian family.

Porter, Glenn, and Cuff, Robert. Enterprise and National Development: Essays in Canadian Business and Economic History Toronto: Hakkert, 1973. Surveys some of the major controversies in Canadian economic history such as why the state is so strong in the Canadian economy. Contains a good bibliographic essay for further research.

Lermer, George, ed. Probing Leviathan: An Investigation of Government in the Economy Vancouver: Fraser Institute, 1984. An attempt by various authors to measure the size of government in Canada.

Carr, Jack; Mathewson, Frank; and McManus, John. Cents and Nonsense: The Economics of Canadian Policy Issues. Toronto: Holt, Rinehart and Winston, 1972. Three leading Canadian economists apply economic thinking to various Canadian public policy issues in a series of short essays.

Robson, John S. P. “A Report Card on the Policies of the Government of Ontario: The Second Year” in Fraser Forum: Critical Issues Bulletin IV, 1992. Current review of how socialism is working in practice in Canada’s biggest province.


Brimelow, Peter. The Patriot Game: Canada and the Canadian question Revisited. Toronto: Key Porter, 1986. How Canada’s crisis over Quebec separatism and the constitution was created and driven by special interests and ideologues.

Riggs, A.R. and Velk, Tom. Federalism in Peril: National Unity, Individualism, Free Markets, and the Emerging Global Economy. Vancouver: Fraser Institute, 1992.

Palda, Filip. Election Finance Regulation in Canada: A Critical Review. Vancouver: Fraser Institute, 1991. Restricting campaign contributions actually helps to restrict electoral competition and entrench incumbents because it insulates them from any negative contributor reactions to their policies.

Walker, Michael A., ed. Canadian Confederation at the Crossroads: The Search for a Federal-Provincial Balance. Vancouver: Fraser Institute, 1978. A late 1970s look at the options for the decentralization of federal government powers.

Constitutions and the Rule of Law

Hayek, Friedrich A. The Constitution of Liberty. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1960. It was the ideal of freedom which inspired modern western civilization and whose partial realization made possible the achievements of that civilization. Hayek shows how to restore that ideal.

Hamowy, Ronald. “Law and the Liberal Society: F.A. Hayek’s Constitution of Liberty” in Journal of Libertarian Studies, Vol. 2, No. 4. A libertarian rebuttal to Hayek’s Constitution of Liberty. arguing that government under the rule of law is no more a guarantee of personal freedom than a government operating with broad powers.

Siegan, Bernard. The Supreme Court’s Constitution: An Inquiry into Judicial Review and Its Impact on Society. New Brunswick, NJ: Transaction Books, 1987.

Dicey, A.V. The Law of the Constitution. 1915. A classic study of the British Constitution and the rule of law.

Macedo, Stephen. The New Right vs. the Constitution. Washington, DC: Cato Institute, 1987. An attack on the attempt to use the doctrine of original intent for reducing civil and economic liberties.

McDonald, Forrest. We the People: The Economic Origins of the Constitution.

The Establishment Clause: Religion and the First Amendment, by Leonard W. Levy

Economic Liberties and Property Rights

Epstein, Richard. Takings: Private Property and the Right of Eminent Domain. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1985.

Paul, Ellen Frankel. Property Rights and Eminent Domain Brunswick, N. J.: Transactions Books, 1987.

The Economics of Property Rights, ed. Erik G. Furubotn and Svetozar Pejovich

Siegan, Bernard. Economic Liberties and the Constitution. 1980.

Dorn, James and Manne, Henry, eds. Economic Liberties and the Judiciary. Fairfax, VA: George Mason University Press, 1987. Essays on judicial trends affecting economic liberties and the role of the judiciary in protecting economic rights. Contributors include Antonin Scalia, Richard Epstein, Alex Kozinski, Bernard Siegan, and Stephen Macedo.

Hummel, Jeffrey Rogers. “Epstein’s Takings Doctrine and the Public-Good Problem” in Texas Law Review 65, May 1987.

History of law

Berman, Harold J. Law and Revolution: The Formation of the Western Legal Tradition Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1983. The development of the western legal system, including concepts such as the rule of law. How the competition among overlapping jurisdictions and sources of law resulted in the emergence of liberty in the West.

Hogue, Arthur R. Origins of The Common Law. Bloomington, IN: Indiana University Press, 1966. Reprinted by Indianapolis, IN: Liberty Press, 1985. An examination of the evolution of the common law in England between 1150 and 1300 when the early rules of common law took form. Shows the relation between early rules and the social order during this period of rapid change and treats law not as something timeless but a social institution.

Civil Liberties

Szasz, Thomas. Ceremonial Chemistry: The Ritual Persecution of Drugs, Addicts and Pushers. Garden City, NY: Doubleday, 1974. The classic case for ending the legal prohibition against the use of drugs.

Hamowy, Ronald, ed. Dealing with Drugs: Consequences of Government Control. Lexington, MA: Lexington Books, 1987.

Levy, Leonard W. Emergence of a Free Press. Oxford University Press, 1985. First published, 1960.

Siebert, Frederick Seaton. Freedom of the Press in England, 1476 1776: The Rise and Decline of Government Control.

Hamowy, Ronald. “The IRS and Civil Liberties: Powers of Search and Seizure” in Cato Journal, Vol. 1, No. 1, Spring 1981.

Boaz, David. Four Hundred Years of Failure: The Futility of Prohibition.

Szasz, Thomas. Our Right to Drugs: The Case for a Free Market. 1992.

Thornton, Mark. The Economics of Prohibition. Salt Lake City: University of Utah Press, 1991. An economic and historical analysis of prohibition in the U.S. Trebach,

Arnold S. The Great Drug War: And Radical Proposals That Could Make America Safe Again. New York: MacMillan, 1987.

Alexander, Bruce K. Peaceful Measures: Canada’s Way Out of the War on Drugs’. University of Toronto Press, 1990.

Epstein, Richard. Forbidden Grounds: The Case Against Employment Discrimination Laws. 1992

Cross reference:

Spooner, Lysander

Litigation, Torts and Liability

Huber, Peter W. Liability: The Legal Revolution and its Consequences. New York: Basic Books, 1988.

Olson, Walter K. The Litigation Explosion: What Happened When America Unleashed the Lawsuit. New York: Dutton, 1991.

Huber, Peter. Galileo’s Revenge: Junk Science in the Courtroom.

Landes, William M. and Posner, Richard A. The Economic Structure of Tort Law. Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1987.

Friedman, David D. “What is Fair Compensation for Death or Injury?” in International Review of Law and Economics 2, 1982.

Criminal Law Wilson,

James Q. Thinking About Crime. New York: Basic Books, 1975. Second edition, 1983.

Barnett, Randy and John Hagel III, eds. Assessing the Criminal: Restitution, Retribution, and the Legal Process Cambridge, Mass.: Ballinger, 1977 Essays by Hamowy, Szasz, Rothbard, Liggio, Richard Epstein, John Hospers, Edward Banfield, and others. Includes the Randy Barnett essay on restitution.

G. Contracts Barnett, Randy. “A Consent Theory of Contracts,” in Columbia Law Review 86, March 1986.

H. Private Law Barnett, Randy E. “Pursuing Justice in a Free Society” in Criminal Justice Ethics, Summer/Fall 1985 and Winter/Spring 1986.

Benson, Bruce L. The Enterprise of Law: Justice Without the State. San Francisco: Pacific Research Institute for Public Policy, 1990. Is justice Is possible outside of the State’s system of police and courts? The author says yes.

Nolan, Patrick B. Vigilantes on the Middle Border: A Study of Self-Appointed Law Enforcement in the States of the Upper Mississippi from 1840 to 1880. 1987. A history of the American vigilante movement.

Anderson, Terry and Hill, P.J. “An American Experiment in Anarcho-Capitalism: The Not So Wild, Wild West,” in Journal of Libertarian Studies 3, No. 1, 1979. The private provision of justice on the American frontier.

Classical Liberal Legal Theory

Leoni, Bruno. Freedom and the Law. 1961; Los Angeles: Nash Publishing, 1972.

Hayek, F.A. Law, Legislation and Liberty. Macedo, Stephen. Liberal Virtues: Citizenship, Virtue and Community in Liberal Constitutionalism. 1990. A classical liberal interpretation of constitutions and the rule of law.

Aranson, Peter. “Bruno Leoni in Retrospect” in Harvard Journal of Law and Public Policy 11, 1988.


Coval, S.C. and Smith, Joseph C. Law and Its Presuppositions: Actions, Agents, and Rules. Boston: Routledge & Kegan Paul, 1986.

Economics and the Law Coase, R.H. “The Problem of Social Cost” in Journal of Law and Economics 3, October 1960.

Posner, Richard A. Economic Analysis of Law. Third edition, Boston: Little, Brown, 1986.

Political Science/Sociology

Mosca, Gaetano. The Ruling Class. New York: McGraw-Hill, 1939. Polanyi, Michael. The Logic of Liberty. 1951; Chicago: University of Chicago, 1980.

Pareto, Vilfredo. The Rise and Fall of the Elites: An Application of Theoretical Sociology. Totowa, N. J.: The Bedminster Press, 1968.

Michels, Robert. Political Parties. New York: The Free Press, 1968.

Andreski, Stanislav. Parasitism and Subversion: The Case of Latin America. New York: Schocken Books, 1969

Finer, S. E., ed. Vilfredo Pareto: Sociological Writings. Totowa, N. J.: Rowman and Littlefield, 1976.

Tufte, Edward. Political Control of the Economy. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1978. How governments manipulate the economy in their efforts to be reelected.

Rustow, Alexander. Freedom and Domination: A Historical Critique of Civilization. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 1980. Human history is the history of a continuing struggle between the forces of freedom and the forces of domination

Schoeck, Helmut. Envy: A Theory of Social Behaviour. Indianapolis: Liberty Press, 1988. First published in German, 1966.

Government Finance

Buchanan, James M. “La Scienza della Finanze: The Italian Tradition in Fiscal Theory” in Fiscal Theory and Political Economy: Selected Essays 1960 An essay on Italian fiscal theorists who researched the relationship of governments to tax revenue.

Montemartini, Giovanni. “The Fundamental Principles of a Pure Theory of Public Finance” in Classics in the Theory of Public Finance, eds., Richard A. Musgrave and Alan T. Peacock. 1967.

Levi, Margaret. Of Rule and Revenue. 1988 The relationship between the growth of the state and taxes.

Public Policy

Formiani, Robert. The Myth of Scientific Public Policy. 1990. A critique of the notion that the methods of science can be used to devise good public policy while remaining ethically neutral.

Smith, T. Alexander. Time and Public Policy. 1989. Using the economic concept of time preference, the author analyses public policy decision-making.

Crane, Edward H. and Boaz, David, eds. An American vision: Policies for the ‘90s. (Washington, D.C.: Cato Institute, 1989. A compilation of free market public policy recommendations covering the economy, foreign affairs, the judiciary, and domestic policies such as privatization and social security.

Payne, James L. The Culture of Spending Why Congress Lives Beyond Our Means. San Francisco: ICS Press, 1991.

Understanding the State

Calhoun, John C. A Disquisition on Government. 1853; Indianapolis: Bobbs-Merrill, 1953. How taxpayers and tax consumers find themselves in conflict and fight their battle in the political arena to achieve the power of government.

Oppenheimer, Franz. The State. 1926; New York: Free Life Editions, 1975. de Jasay, Anthony.

The State. Oxford: Basil Blackwell, 1985. Belloc, Hilaire. The Servile State. New York: Holt, 1946.

Morley, Felix. The Power in the People. 1949. A discussion of the principles of the American system of government.

Nisbet, Robert. The Twilight of Authority. New York: Oxford University Press, 1975. The replacement of social authority by the “authority” of the state. The atomizing effects of statism and the debilitating effects of militarism and collectivism.

Carneiro, Robert. “A Theory of the Origin of the State” in Science 169, August 1970.

Nock, Albert Jay. Our Enemy the State. Reprint, New York: Libertarian Review Foundation, 1989.

De La Boetie, Etienne. The Politics of Obedience: The Discourse of Voluntary Servitude. 1577; New York: Free Life Editions, 1975. An essay on why people obey government. Introduction by Murray Rothbard

De Jouvenal, Bertrand. On Power. 1948.

Third World Development
Development Economics

Bauer, Peter T. Equality, The Third World and Economic Delusion. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1981. Economic growth is possible in countries with no material or human resources, says the author. He argues that savings, free enterprise, a social acceptance of entrepreneurship, and limited government should create the conditions for growth in even the poorest of countries. Includes a challenge to the argument that Third World poverty is caused by the West and challenges the rationale for foreign aid.

Bauer, P. T. Dissent on Development. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1971. A critique of the statist model of economic development.

Lal, Deepak. The Poverty of Development Economics London: Institute of Economic Affairs, 1983.

Krauss, Melvyn B. Development Without Aid: Growth, Poverty, and Government. New York: McGraw-Hill, 1983.

Bauer, P. T. Reality and Rhetoric: Studies in the Economics of Development. 1984.

Hill, Polly. Development Economics on Trial. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1986. How development “experts” misconstrue the meaning of Indigenous and spontaneously-evolved market mechanisms, with disastrous consequences.

Roth, Gabriel. The Private Provision of Public Services in Developing Countries. New York: Oxford University Press for the World Bank, 1987.

Hanke, Steve, ed. Privatization and Development. San Francisco: ICS Press, 1987.

“Development Economics After 40 Years” in Cato Journal, Spring/Summer 1987.

Bates, Robert H., ed. Toward a Political Economy of Development: A Rational Choice Perspective. 1988. Essays include Government and Agricultural Markets in Africa, Public Choice and Peasant Organization, and Property Rights in Land: A Comparative Study.

Goodell, Grace. “The Importance of Political Participation for Sustained Capitalist Development” in European Journal of Sociology 26, 1985.

Poweison, John P. and Stock, Richard. The Peasant Betrayed Agriculture and Land Reform in the Third World. Boston: Oeigeschlager, Gunn & Ham, 1987. A survey of 16 countries and the effect of land reform on peasants.


How the West Grew Rich

The African Experience

Bauer, P. T. West African Trade: A Study of Competition Oligopoly and Monopoly in a Changing Economy. 1954.

Hill, Polly. studies in Rural Capitalism in West Africa. 1970.

Ayittey, George B.N. “The Lessons of Africa’s Market traditions” in Economic Affairs 7, October/November 1986.

Andreski, Stanislav. The African Predicament: A Study in the Pathology of Modernization. London: Joseph, 1968.

The Asian Experience

Rabushka, Alvin. The New China: Comparative Economic Development in Mainland China, Taiwan, and Hong Kong. San Francisco: Pacific Research Institute for Public Policy, 1987. The free market and Confucianism combined to make Hong Kong and Taiwan economic “miracles”. China, choosing a path of central planning and Communism. wallowed until market reforms were introduced.

Mosher, Steven W. Broken Earth: The Rural Chinese New York: Free Press, 1983.

Rabushka, Alvin. Hong Kong: A Study in Economic Freedom. Chicago: University of Chicago Press for the Graduate School of Business, 1979.

Rabushka, Alvin. Value for Money: The Hong Kong Budgetary Process. Stanford, CA: Hoover Press, 1976.

Popkin, Samuel. The Rational Peasant: The Political Economy of Rural Society in Vietnam. Berkeley: University of California Press. A “political economy” approach to understanding peasant societies that contrasts with the anti-market “moral economy” approach.

The South American Experience

De Soto, Hernando. The Other Path: The Invisible Revolution in the Third World. New York: Perennial Library, 1989. First published in Peru in 1986. A look at the black market in Peru and how a market economy spontaneously develops to the benefit of entrepreneurs and the poor.

The Free Market Basics

Block, Walter E., ed. Economics and the Environment: A Reconciliation. Vancouver: Fraser Institute, 1990. Market solutions to environmental problems.

Anderson, Terry L. and Leal, Donald R. Free Market Environmentalism. San Francisco: Pacific Research Institute for Public Policy, 1991.

Bandow, Doug, ed. Protecting the Environment: A Free Market Strategy. Washington, DC: Heritage Foundation, 1986. Among the articles is Milton Copulos’, “Disposing of Hazardous Wastes: How to Deal with the Toxic Terror

Simon, Juhan. University Press, 1981. The Ultimate Resource. Princeton: Princeton

Hardin, Garrett. “The Tragedy of the Commons” in science 162, December 1968. How “common ownership” leads to overuse of resources.

Brubaker, Earl. “Free Ride, Free Revelation, or Golden Rule?” in Journal of Law and Economics, April 1975.

Government Failure

Baden, John A. and Stroup, Richard L. Bureaucracy v. Environment: The Environmental Cost of Bureaucratic Governance. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press, 1981.

Greve, Michael S. and Smith, Fred L., eds. Environmental politics: Public Costs, Private Rewards. Westport, CT: Praeger Publishers, 1992.

Pashigian, B. Peter. “Environmental Regulations: Whose Self-Interests Are Being Protected?” in Economic Inquiry, October 1985.

Baden, John A. and Leal, Donald R., eds. The Yellowstone Primer Policy Reform via the New Resource Economics. 1989.


“Land Use and Resource Development” in Cato Journal, Winter 1982.

Stroup, Richard L. and Baden, John A., eds. Natural Resources: Bureaucratic Myths and Environmental Management. Cambridge, Mass.: Ballinger Publishing Co., 1983.

Anderson, Terry. Water Crisis. Ending the Policy Drought. Washington, D.C.: Cato Institute, 1983. An application of economic principles to water policy, showing how government management leads to pollution and overuse.

Smith, Rodney T. Trading Water: The Legal and economic Framework for Water Marketing. Claremont, CA: Claremont McKenna College, 1986.

Deacon, Robert and Johnson, M. Bruce, eds. Forestlands: public and Private. Cambridge: Ballinger Publishing, 1985. Simon, Julian L. and Kahn, Herman, eds. Oxford: Basil Blackwell, 1984.


The Resourceful Earth. “A Symposium on Pollution” in Cato Journal, Spring 1982.

Endangered Species

Ridley, Matt. “privatizing America’s West: Profits >From the Wild” in The Economist, October 22, 1988.

Kwong, Jo. “Evolving Institutions in Wildlife Management: The Case for Fee Hunting” in Western Wildlands, Spring 1988.

Shaw, Jane and Stroup, Richard. “Gone Fishin’” in Reason, August/September 1988.

Majewski, John. “Own Your Own Whale” in Economic Affairs, October/November 1987.

The Science of Environmentalism

“Of Mice and Men: Finding Cancer’s Causes,” interview of Bruce Ames, in Reason, Dec. 1991. Interview of cancer researcher Bruce Ames who invented Ames Test which measured the toxicity of chemicals. Includes the state of cancer research and environmentalism.

Bruce Ames. “Environmental and Dietary Carcinogens and Public Policy” in Fraser Forum, May 1990.

The Family and Education
The Family

Peden, Joseph R. and Glahe, Fred R., eds. The American Family and the State. San Francisco: Pacific Research Institute for Public Policy, 1986.

Carr, Jack L. The Day Care Dilemma: A Critical Analysis of the Options. 1987.


West, Edwin G. Higher Education in Canada: An Analysis. 1988. Sykes,

Charles J. Profscam: Professors and the Demise of Higher Education. New York: St. Martin’s Press, 1988.

Kimball, Roger. Tenured Radicals: How Politics Has Corrupted Our Higher Education. New York: Harper & Row, 1990.

Primary and Secondary Education

Easton, Stephen T. Education in Canada: An Analysis of Elementary, Secondary and Vocational Schooling. 1988.

Coons, John E. and Sugarman, Stephen D. education by Choice: The Case for Family Control. Berkeley, Cal.: University of California Press, 1978.

Arons, Stephen. Compelling Belief: The Culture of American Schooling. New York: McGraw-Hill, 1983.

Rickenbacker, William F., ed. The Twelve Year Sentence. LaSalle, Ill.: Open Court, 1974 Essays by Rothbard, Joel Spring, E.G. West, and others.

Lieberman, Myron. Beyond Public Education. New York: Praeger Publications, 1986.

Everhart, Robert B., ed. The Public School Monopoly: A Critical Analysis of Education and the State in American Society. Cambridge, MA: Ballinger, 1982. Contributors include Joel Spring, George Smith and E.G. West.

Chubb, John E. and Moe, Terry M. Politics, Markets & American Schools.

Lieberman, Myron. Privatization and Educational Choice New York: St. Martin’s Press, 1989. Education for profit is the best option for the reform of the education system.

Gatto, John Taylor. Dumbing Us Down: The Hidden Curriculum of Compulsory Schooling. 1991.

West, E.G. Education and the State: A Study in Political Economy. London: Institute of Economic Affairs, 1970.

Classical Liberal Feminists In History

A Vindication of the Rights of Woman, by Mary Wollstonecraft

A Wollstonecraft Anthology, ed. Janet M. Todd

An American Anarchist: The Life of Voltairine de Cleyre (Princeton University Press, 1978) by Paul Avrich

Contemporary classical liberal feminists

Freedom, Feminism, and the State (1982), ed. Wendy McElroy The libertarian version of feminism.

A Feminist Defense of the Free Market! by Wendy McElroy

Reclaiming the Mainstream: Individualist Feminism rediscovered (New York: Prometheus Books, 1992) by Joan Kennedy

Taylor Paglia Camille. Sexual Personae. Controversial, outspoken, feminist who objects to the arguments of mainstream feminism and its call for more government intervention in personal affairs. She celebrates the individual and free choice.

Gender Equity

A Matter of choice: A Critique of Comparable Worth by a Skeptical Feminist, by Jennifer Roback

Equity and Gender: The Comparable Worth Debate, by Ellen Frankel Paul


Bovard, James. The Farm Fiasco. 1989. An attack on the protection and subsidization of agriculture.

Luttrell, Clifton B. The High Cost of Farm Welfare. 1989. The history of the U.S. government’s intervention In agriculture and an analysis of current government programs.

Pasour, E. C. Agriculture and the State: Market Processes and Bureaucracy.


Weaver, Paul H. The Suicidal Corporation: How Big Business Fails America. New York: Touchstone, 1988. An Interesting look at the internal decision-making of a major American corporation and how it works against the interests of free enterprise and, ultimately, its own company.

Hessen, Robert. In Defense of the Corporation. Stanford, Cal.: Hoover Institution Press, 1979.

McKenzie, Richard B. and Lee, Dwight R. Quicksilver Capital: How the Rapid Movement of Wealth Has Changed the World. 1991. How the mobilization of capital is forcing governments to compete for investment by deregulating, privatizing, cutting taxes, and opening trade.

Health Care

Peltzman, Sam. Regulation of Pharmaceutical Innovation: The 1962 Amendments. Washington, D.C.: American Enterprise Institute, 1974. How government regulations have delayed the release of lifesaving drugs.

Brown, Malcolm C. Caring for Profit: economic Dimensions of Canada’s Health Industry. Vancouver: The Fraser Institute, 1987.

Goodman, John. National Health Care in Great Britain: Lessons for the U.S.A.. 1982.

Green, David. Working Class Patients and the Medical Establishment: Self-Help in Britain from the Mid-Nineteenth Century to 1948. New York: St. Martin’s Press, 1985. The functioning of voluntary medical care in Britain before the onset of National Health Insurance. State medicine was imposed to serve the cartelizing tendencies of the medical profession and resulted in higher costs, lower quality, and diminished consumer sovereignty.


Tucker, William. The Excluded Americans: Homelessness and Housing Policies. How government housing policies such as rent control, zoning, and building regulation have reduced the pool of housing In the U.S. and have created the homeless.

Walker, Michael A., ed. Rent Control: A Popular Paradox. Vancouver: Fraser institute, 1975.

Baird, Charles. Rent Control: The Perennial Folly Washington, D.C.: Cato Institute, 1980. How rent control dries up the supply of housing, including case studies of communities with rent control.

Siegan, Bernard H. Lexington Books, 1972. Land Use Without Zoning. Lexington, Mass.:

Johnson, M. Bruce. Resolving the Housing Crisis. 1982.

Labour Unions

Hutt, W.H. The Theory of Collective Bargaining. 1930. An analysis of the theory and practice of legalized labour cartels.

Reynolds, Morgan 0. Power and privilege: Labor Unions in America.

Reynolds, Morgan 0. Making America Poorer. 1987. The legal and economic costs of U.S. labour law.

Dickman, Howard. Industrial Democracy in America: Ideological Origins of National Labor Relations Policy.

Heldman, Dan C.; Bennett, James T.; and, Johnson, Manuel H. Deregulating Labor Relations. Dallas, TX: Fisher Institute, 1981.

Hutt, W.H. The Strike-Threat System: The Economic Consequences of Collective Bargaining. New Rochelle, NY: Arlington House, 1973.

Addision, John T. and Burton, John. Trade Unions and Society Some Lessons of the British Experience. Vancouver: Fraser Institute, 1984.

Simons, Henry C. “Some Reflections on Syndicalism” in Journal of Labor Research, Spring 1980, Reprint Series No. 2. Originally published in Journal of Political Economy, 1944.


Goldwater, Barry. The Conscience of a Conservative. Shepherdsville, Ky.: Victor Pub. Co., 1960. The political statement of the Republican presidential candidate in 1960. A landmark statement by the leader of the resurgent conservative movement in the United States in the post-Roosevelt era. ~ Navarro,

Peter. The Policy Game: How Special Interests and Ideologues Are Stealing America. 1984.

Payne, James L. The Culture of spending: Why Congress Lives Beyond Our Means San Francisco: ICS Press, 1991. How the culture of government in the U.S. promotes growth in government.

Friedman in China (1991), by Milton Friedman

Tuccille, Jerome. Radical Libertarianism: A Right Wing Alternative. Indianapolis: Bobbs-Merrill, 1970. Interesting account of the divide in the American Right during the late 1960s. The author comes out against the conservatism of William F. Buckley in favour of “conservative” anarchism.

Meiners, Roger F. and Yandle, Bruce, eds. Regulation and the Reagan Era: Politics, Bureaucracy and the Public Interest. New York:

Holmes and Meier, 1989. How and why government regulation of the economy increased during the Reagan years.

Race, Discrimination, and Affirmative Action

Sowell, Thomas. Markets and Minorities. New York: Basic Books, 1981. The economics of race.

Wortham, Anne. The Other Side of Racism: A Philosophical Study of Black Race Consciousness. Columbus: Ohio State University Press, 1981. Racial harmony is attained through individual rights and the spontaneous order of a free society.

Williams, Walter. The State Against Blacks. New York: McGraw-Hill, 1982.

Bolick, Clint. Changing Course: Civil Rights at the Crossroads. New Brunswick: Transaction Books, 1988. The change in the American civil rights movement from its roots in natural law theories of human rights to advocacy of state control.

Redistribution, Poverty, and Welfare

Murray, Charles. Losing Ground: American Social Policy, 1950 1980. New York: Basic Books, 1984. State welfarism leads to dependency and ruined lives.

Murray, Charles. In Pursuit: Of Happiness and Good Government. New York: Simon and Schuster, 1988. How social problems resistant to massive government programs may yield solutions that rely more on natural human spontaneity.

Green, David. Mutual Aid or Welfare State: Australia’s friendly Societies. Sydney: Allen & Unwin, 1984. The voluntary alternatives to the welfare state; self-help organizations were more efficient, more attuned to the need of their members, and provided independence and self-determination rather than dependency and domination.

Gosden, P.H.J.H. The Friendly Societies in England, 1815 – 1875 Manchester: University of Manchester Press, 1961.

Hazlitt, Henry. The Conquest of Poverty. New Rochelle: Arlington House, 1973. How the market creates prosperity and eliminates poverty.

Sugden, Robert. “Voluntary Organizations and the Welfare State” in Privatization and the Welfare State, eds. Julian Le Grand and Ray Robinson.


“Of Mice and Men: Finding Cancer’s Causes,” interview of Bruce Ames, in Reason, Dec. 1991. Interview of cancer researcher Bruce Ames who invented Ames Test which measured the toxicity of chemicals. Includes the state of cancer research and environmentalism.

Engines of Creation, by Eric Drexler

Microcosm: The Quantum Revolution in Economics & Technology, by George Gilder Chaos:

Making a New Science, by James Gleick


Schall, Father James, SJ. Religion, Wealth. and Poverty Vancouver: Fraser Institute, 1990. A critical analysis of “social justice” and the church’s opposition to capitalism.

Berger, Peter L., ed. The Capitalist Spirit: Toward a Religious Ethic of Wealth Creation. San Francisco: ICS Press, 1990.

Chafuen, Alejandro J. Christians for Freedom: Late Scholastic Economics. 1986. The economic principles of medieval theologians in Spain between 1400 and 1650.

Block, Walter E. The U.S. Bishops and their critics: An Economic and Ethical Perspective. Vancouver: The Fraser Institute, 1986. An analysis of the Pastoral Letter published by the Catholic Bishops of the United States which attacked the U.S. economic system and capitalism.

Block, Walter and Hexham, Irving, eds. religion, Economics, and Social Thought: Proceedings of an International Symposium Vancouver: The Fraser Institute, 1986. Essays on the place of religion within society.

Novak, Michael. Will It Liberate? New York: Paulist Press, 1986. An attack on liberation theology practiced in the Third World. Bandow, Doug. Beyond Good Intentions: A Biblical View of Politics. 1988.

Smith, George. Atheism: The Case Against God.

Block, Walter; Brennan, Geoffrey; and Elzinga, Kenneth, eds. Morality of the Market: religious and Economic Perspectives. Vancouver: Fraser Institute,

Henry Louis Mencken

A Mencken Chrestomathy, by H.L. Mencken

The Diary of H.L. Mencken, ed. Charles Fecher

H.L. Mencken, by Vincent Fitzpatrick

The Impossible H.L. Mencken

Contemporary Journalism

Republican Party Reptile, by P.J. O’Rourke A Parliament of Whores, by P.J. O’Rourke

The Politics of Plunder: Misgovernrnent in Washington, by Doug Bandow


Democratick Editorials: Essays in Jacksonian political Economy (Liberty Fund edition, 1984) by William Leggett; ed. by Lawrence H. White

The American Democrat (1838; Liberty Fund edition, 1981) by James Fenimore Cooper Essays on American democracy by a major American novelist of the early 1800s.

Academic Journals

Journal of libertarian Studies

Cato Journal

Critical Review

Popular Sources

Liberty. Bimonthly libertarian magazine.

Reason. Monthly magazine on public policy issues.

The Freeman. Monthly. Introductory economics.

Economic Affairs.

Laissez Faire Books. Monthly catalog of free market publications.

Think Tank Publications

Fraser Forum. Monthly. The Fraser Institute.

Humane Studies Review. Institute for Humane Studies.

The Free Market. The Ludwig von Mises Institute.


(c) Copyright GVLA 1992-1999
Credit to Laissez Faire Books or The Institute for Humane Studies where appropriate.

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